Agate comes in a wide range of colours, and when diccussing gemstones generally only banded forms of the stone are considered Agate. Exceptions are Moss Agate and Dendritic Agate, which lack banding patterns.
|Chalcedony Quartz||Banded Agate, Carnelian, Sardonyx, Onyx, Dendritic Agate, Fire Agate, Moss Agate||Varied||Stone of Protection, used to fend off stress, tiredness and bad dreams||Zodiac Stone: Gemini||Common||Transluscent-Opaque||6.5-7.0||1.53-1.55||2.6-2.65||Dull - Waxy||None
Alexandrite changes color under different lighting. Under daylight, it can be green-blue to green-yellow, but if viewed in incandescent lighting, it is pink or red. Until recently, there were very few known sources for Alexandrite and it was extremely rare and highly prized.
|Chrysoberyl||Varied||Aids Discipline, Self Control, and Focus||Birthstone: June||Very Rare||Transparent-Almost Opaque||8.5||1.74-1.76||3.5-3.8||Vitreous||Good
Amazonite is a light green to light blue gemstone, supposedly named after the blue Amazon River and the green Amazon Rainforest, but Amazonite is not actually found in the Amazon. Amazonite is less valuable than Jade but is sometimes mistaken for it.
|Microcline||Light green or blue, sometimes with white streaks||Stone of the Amazon Warriors, aids strength and stamina||Rare||Transluscent-Opaque||6.0-6.5||1.52-1.53||2.56-2.58||Vitreous||Perfect
Amber is the fossilized resin of ancient pine trees. It is a striking orange color, and was historically thought to be linked to the sun due to this. Pieces and jewelry made from Amber have been found in graves dated to as far back as 2000 b.c.
|Non Mineral Organic||Blue Amber, Baltic Amber||Commonly known as orange or yellow, but blue, red and green amber also exists||Promotes optimism and a positive outlook||Varies||Transparent-Almost Opaque||2.0-2.5||1.539-1.545||1.0-1.1||Resinous||None
Amethyst is the purple form of Quartz, and is among the more valuable forms of that mineral. The purple colour stems from iron and aluminum impurities. Historically favoured by nobility as purple is often seen as the color of royalty.
|Macrocrystalline Quartz||Ametrine||Purple||Historically believed to combat the effects of alcohol. Promotes peace and balance, aids with financial or legal issues.||Birthstone: February, Zodiac Stone: Pisces||High quality is rare, lower quality is common||Transparent-Transluscent||7||1.54-1.55||2.63-2.65||Vitreous||None
Amtrine is the combination of Amethyst and Citrine, and generally are partially purple and partially yellow/orange. It is relatively new classification.
|Macrocrystalline Quartz||Distinctly split purple and yellow||Combines the qualities of Amethyst and Citrine||Birthstone: February or November, Zodiac Stone: Pisces and Cancer||Rare||Transparent||7||1.54-1.55||2.63-2.65||Vitreous||None
Ammolite is the fossilized shell remains of ammonites, an extinct group of animals. It has color play similar to Opal, and is one of the rarest gemstones on Earth
|Non Mineral Organic||Gray Brown with color play||Some Native Americans belives Ammolite represented wealth, health and power.||Very Rare||Opaque||4||1.52-1.68||2.75-2.8||Varies||Pinacoidal
Andalusite is pleochroic, meaning it can appear to have different colors when viewed from different angles. It is typically ranges from green-yellow to orange-red, and is one of the lesser known gemstones, although it is gaining in popularity. It is named after Andalusia, the area in Spain where it was first discovered.
|Andalusite||Chiastolite, Virdine||Varied||Seeing Stone, helpful with objectivity and seeing without bias.||Gem quality is rare, lower quality is common||Transparent-Opaque||7.0-7.5||1.62-1.65||3.1-3.2||Vitreous||Good
A group of different minerals, Apatite is used as a ter as the indivdual minerals are often hard to distinguish. The name comes from the Greek 'Apate' ,meaning deceit, and it is so named due to its similar appearance to many other minerals. Gemstone quality Apatite is quite rare.
|Apatite||Many||Varied||Lesser known, but it is considered a stone of learning, inspiration, and extroversion||Gem quality is rare, lower quality is common||Transparent-Transluscent||5||1.628-1.649||3.1-3.2||Vitreous||Indistinct
Aquamarine is a form of Beryl, and is green blue in color. Aquamarine means 'seawater' in Latin, and it is so named for its color reflecting that of the sea. Aquamarine stones that exhibit the cat's eye effect or star effect are very rare.
|Beryl||Cat's Eye Aquamarine||Blue||Historically a popular gemstone among sailors. Signifies safe passage and protects from sea sickness.||Birthstone: March||Varies||Transparent-Opaque||7.5-8.0||1.57-1.58||2.6-2.8||Vitreous||Indistinct
Aventurine is a type of Chalcedony Quartz, typically green, and it can have small flakes or spots that give it a shimmering effect.
|Chalcedony Quartz||Green, other colors exist but are rare and aren't typically used as gems.||Stone of Luck, and also helps with obtaining peace of mind and patience.||Common||Opaque||6.5-7.0||1.54-1.55||2.63-2.65||Vitreous, Waxy||Indistinct
Axinite is the name of a group of minerals, and the name comes from the Greek 'Axine', meaning Axe, due to the sharp crystals found in the mineral. Axinite of gemstone quality is rare. Axinite is pleochroic, meaning it can show a variety of colors depending the viewing angle.
|Axinite||Ferro-axinite, magnesio-axinite, manganaxinite, tinzenite||Brown, Purple, Blue, Golden||Stone of Truth that can help with resolving conflict.||Gem quality is very rare, lower quality is moderate||Transparent-Transluscent||6.5-7.0||1.65-1.7||3.3-3.4||Vitreous||Good
Azurite is gemstone quality copper ore, and is quite rare. Azurite is not that commonly used in jewelry, and is more commonly carved into various shapes as decorative ornaments. The name comes from its Azure color.
|Azurite||Azure-malachite||Blue||Helpful for meditation, strengthens intuition and creativity. Helps develop spiritual awareness.||Rare||Transparent-Opaque||3.5-4.0||1.72-1.848||3.7-3.9||Vitreous||Indistinct
Beryl is a single mineral with many varieties (much like Quartz), with the most well known being Emerald and Aquamarine. It is abundant, but gemstone quality beryl is rarer and is referred to as 'Precious Beryl'. Other varieties will often be referred to by their own name, while in the context of gemstones, Beryl most often refers to the more common Golden Beryl, which is an intense green-yellow color.
|Beryl||Emerald, Aquamarine, Morganite, Goshenite, Bixbite||Varied||Stone of the sun, Golden Beryl can help increase determination and drive in the wearer.||Varies||Transparent-Opaque||7.5-8.0||1.57-1.60||2.6-2.8||Vitreous||Indistinct
Bixbite is the name of Red Beryl, which is actually rare than Emerald. The name bixbite is no rarely used to avoid confusion with bixbyite, another mineral with a similar name.
|Beryl||Red||Said to help overcome depression and grief, Red Beryl (Bixbite) helps with energy and creativity.||Very Rare||Transparent-Opaque||7.5-8.0||1.56-1.58||2.6-2.8||Vitreous||Indistinct
Bloodstone is the opaque form of Chalcedony Quartz. It is dark green, but gets its namesake from the red flecks or streaks that resemble blood. Bloodstone is mentioned in Christian scripture, and is sometimes associated with martyrdom.
|Chalcedony Quartz||Green with red and brown flecks or streaks||Historically, Bloodstone was thought to derive from the blood of Jesus, and thus posessed healing powers.||Birthstone: March, Zodiac Stone: Aries||Common||Transluscent-Opaque||6.5-7.0||1.53-1.54||2.58-2.64||Vitreous, Waxy, Resinous||None
Carnelian is another form of Chalcedony Quartz. It is orange-red to dark red and derives its name from cornel cherries, which share a similar color. There are written records showing knowledge of the stone that date back 4000 years.
|Chalcedony Quartz||Red||Carnelian was worn by Napolean for good luck, and brings good luck to the wearer. It also helps protect from poverty, and can regulate emotions and help induce calmness.||Zodiac Stone: Carnelian||Moderate||Transluscent-Opaque||6.5-7.0||1.53-1.55||2.63-2.64||Vitreous||None
Cassiterite is tin ore, and is a popular source of tin. Gemstone quality cassiterite is extremely rare, and is highly sought after by gemstone experts and collectors. It is mostly dark brown or black, but other shades do exist.
|Cassiterite||Brown, Black||Cassiterite can aid meditation, and also can aid problem solving and intellect.||Gem quality is very rare, lower quality is very common||Transparent-Opaque||6.0-7.0||2.0-2.1||6.7-7.1||Submetallic||Indistinct
Chrome Diopside is most commonly green, and it was only relatively recently that it started becoming used as a gemstone.
|Diopside||Cat's Eye Diopside, Star Diopside||Green, Yellow, White, Brown, Black||As a relatively unknown gemstone, chrome diopside doesn't have much mystical reputation. Some people believe it can help creative visualation and awareness.||Moderate||Transparent-Transluscent||5.0-6.0||1.66-1.73||3.22-3.38||Vitreous, Dull||Good
Chrysoberyl gems are mostly yellow, with some also being brown, green, or orange. Chrysoberyl is actually not a Beryl, it is actually its own mineral group. Chrysoberyl is also one of the hardest type of semi precious stone.
|Chrysoberyl||Cat's Eye Chrysoberyl, Alexandrite||Commonly yellow, other colors also exist||Chrysoberyl is supposed to help with discipline and self control, increase concentration, and aid learning ability.||Rare||Transparent-Opaque||8.5||1.746-1.763||3.7-7.78||Vitreous||Good
Chrysocolla is a less well known semi precious stone well liked by enthusiasts for its unique patterns and colors. The name comes from the Greek words for 'gold' and 'glue' as it was historically used as a soldering agent for gold.
|Chrysocolla||Apache Chrysocolla, Eilat Stone||Green/Blue with unique patterns||This stone is traditionally said to be helpful when negotiating, and can reduce violence and increase sensitivity.||Common||Opaque||2.0-4.0||1.46-1.57||2.0-2.4||Greasy, Vitreous||None
Chrysoprase is another form of Chalcedony Quartz, and is a striking green color. It is one of the rarest kinds of Chalcedony Quartz. The name comes from the Greek work for 'leek', and the stone is somewhat reminiscent of the color of that vegetable.
|Chalcedony Quartz||Bright Green||Chrysoprase can help bring balance to the subconcious and concious mind, and is also said to bring friendship, happiness, and success.||Rare||Transluscent-Opaque||6.5-7.0||1.53-1.54||2.58-2.64||Vitreous, Waxy||None
Citrine is a widely known and popular semi precious stone in the Quartz family. It is yellow/orange and the name is derived from the French word meaning 'Lemon', although the shade is often more golden than pure yellow.
|Macrocrystalline Quartz||Ametrine||Yellow, Golden, Orange||Success Stone, Citrine radiates positive energy and can help increase wealth and prosperity. Shopkeepers in particular favor this stone as a good luck charm.||Birthstone: November||Moderate||Transparent||7||1.544-1.553||2.63-2.65||Vitreous||None
Clinohumite is a rare mineral and gemstone quality Clinohumite is even rarer. The stone gets its name from Abraham Hume, a well known mineralogist. Until recently, it was thought to be amongst the rarest gemstones in the world, but recently more sources have been discovered.
|Humite||Golden, Yellow, Brown||Given the rarity of the stone, Clinohumite lacks some of the myth and lore than many gemstones have. Some believe that it brings energy and vitality to the wearer.||Very Rare||Transparent-Opaque||6||1.629-1.674||3.13-3.75||Vitreous, Resinous||Poor
Coral is organic, literally coming from the Coral in seas and oceans. Coral can come in a few differennt colors, but the most common color used as a semi precious stone is Red Coral.
|Non Mineral Organic||Black Coral, Red Coral/Precious Coral, Fossil Coral||Red, Black, Orange, Pink, Gray||Coral is seen as a protective stone that can ward off danger.||Moderate||Transluscent-Opaque||3.0-4.0||1.486-1.658||2.6-2.7||Dull, Vitreous if polished||None
Danburite is a lesser known gemstone primarily targeted enthusiasts and collectors. Generally only the colorless variety of Danburite is used as a gemstone. The stone is named after Danbury, the town in Conneticut where it was discovered.
|Danburite||Colorless||People believe Danburite has a pure vibrations and can aid with dispelling negative emotions like anxiety and grief.||Gemstone quality is rare, lower quality is common||Transparent||7.0-7.5||1.63-1.636||2.97-3.03||Greasy, Vitreous||Imperfect
Dumortierite is a blue gemstone that falls into the Quartz family. Named after a French paleontologist Eugene Dumortier, Dumortierite is better known for its industrial purposes relating to the production of ceramics. It is sometimes known as 'blue moon quartz'.
|Dumortierite||Blue||Dumortierite is said to be helpful for improving discipline and organization.||Moderate||Transluscent-Opaque||7.0-8.5||1.68-1.69||3.26-3.41||Waxy, Dull||Good
Fluorite is a relatively popular gemstone and mineral, and the term 'fluorescent' was derived from the name of this stone. Colors vary widely, but the most typical color of Fluorite is blue.
|Fluorite||Antozonite, Blue John, Chlorophane, Yttofluorite||All Colors and colorless||There isn't much lore to Fluorite, but people believe that it can be used to calm and soothe.||Common||Transparent-Transluscent||4||1.434||3.0-3.25||Vitreous||Perfect
Garnet is not a single mineral, rather it describes a range of separate but similar minerals. Garnet derives its name from the Latin word for pomegranate, and although there are many varieties it is most often associated with the dark red version of itself.
|Garnet||Many||All colors||Garnet is known as the Travellers stone, good for explorers and adventurers. It is also said to help the development of self confidence and empathy.||Birthstone: January, Zodiac Stone: Aquarius||Common||Transluscent-Opaque||6.5-7.5||1.714-1.888||3.47-4.15||Vitreous||Indistinct
Hambergite is a rare stone mostly sought after by enthusiasts and collectors. It is normally white or colorless.
|Hambergite||Colorless, White||Although not well known, Hambergite is highly valued by those who believe in crystal healing - it has powerful vibrations and can induce great joy.||Rare||Transparent-Transluscent||7.5||1.553-1.628||2.35||Vitreous||Perfect
Hematite is the semi precious stone variety of iron oxide. It apears to be a gray/black color,but when powdered is actually red or brown (like rust).
|Hematite||Grey, Black||Hematite is believed to aid it clearing the mind and improve focus, and is generally considered quite a strong healing stone.||Common||Opaque||5.5-6.5||2.94-3.22||5.12-5.28||Metallic||None
Hessonite is a variety of Garnet, and is often brownish red In color. Some people refer to it as the 'cinnamon stone' for its similarity in color to the spice.
|Garnet||Yellow Red, Brown Red||Hessonite carries special meaning in Indian culture, where it Is believed that the mineral is the fingernails of one of the Gods.||Birthstone: January (Garnet), Zodiac Stone: Aquarius (Garnet)||Common||Transparent-Opaque||6.5-7.5||1.734-1.759||3.57-3.73||Vitreous||Indistinct
Hiddenite is a green gem, and is a variety of Spodumene. This semi precious stone is named after the man who discovered and identified it, William Earl Hidden.
|Spodumene||Green||It is said that Hiddenite can bring the wearer to greater levels compassion and kindess.||Rare||Transparent||6.5-7.0||1.66-1.68||3.1-3.2||Vitreous||Perfect
Iolite is the gemstone version of the Cordierite mineral. It recent years its use as a semi precious stone has grown in popularity. Iolite comes in a variety of purple-blue hues. Due to its affordability, it can often act as a useful substitute for Sapphire.
|Cordierite||Bloodshot Iolite||Blue, Purple||Iolite helps bring out creativity and can aid with insomnia.||Common||Transparent-Transluscent||7.0-7.5||1.54-1.57||2.58-2.66||Vitreous||Good
Pure Jade comes only in two main forms, Jadite and Nephrite. Jade is a bright green, and is highly prized in many cultures, particularly Chinese culture. The most valuable form of Jade is Imperial Jade, which is emerald green Jadite.
|Jadite or Nephrite||Imperial Jade||Green||In Chinese culture, Jade is seen in a similar vein that Gold is seen in the West. It is belived that Jade is protective and absorbs negative energy.||Imperial Jade is rare, other forms are moderate||Transluscent-Opaque||6.0-7.0||1.60-1.69||2.9-3.4||Waxy, Greasy||Rarely Observed
Jasper is a form of Quartz, and it is often striped, spotted and be found in any color. Jasper often has interesting patterns on it which arise from impurities.
|Chalcedony Quartz||Many||All colors with stripes or spots||Jasper is seen as a nurturing stone, aiding the wearer through difficult periods.||Common||Opaque||6.5-7.0||1.54-1.55||2.58-2.91||Dull, Vitreous||
Jet is a black gemstone with organic origins. It starts off as wood and is formed over long periods of time under pressure in seas and rivers. Jet was very popular in the Victorian era, as Queen Victoria wore Jet as part of her mourning attire after the death of Prince Albert.
|Non Mineral Organic||Dark Grey, Black||Jet is believed to be a protective stone, and can also bring luck and help alleviate grief.||Common||Opaque||2.5-4.0||1.66||1.3-1.34||Dull, Vitreous if polished||None
Kornerupine is a very rare gemstone, and is typically green in color, although other colors can also be found. Kornerupine is rarely used in jewelry due to its rarity - it is more commonly sought out by collectors.
|Kornerupine||Star Kornerupine||Green, White, Pink, Yellow, Blue||Kornerupine is rarey and not well known, but some believe it can help mold and improve personality and aid in improving character.||Rare||Transparent-Transluscent||6.5-7.0||1.66-1.70||3.28-3.35||Vitreous||Good
Kunzite, along with Hiddenite, are the two gem varieties of Spodumene. Kunzite is named after famed jeweller and mineralogist George Frederick Kunz. It is pink or violet and has industrial applications beyond use as a gemstone.
|Spodumene||Pink, Violet||Kunzite brings good fortune and helps with sociability, and can help in repairing damaged relationships.||Moderate||Transparent||6.5-700||1.66-1.68||3.1-3.2||Vitreous||Perfect
Kyanite is most commonly found as a blue gem and its name comes from the Greek for deep blue. Kyanite colors are normally inconsistent, with lighter and darker areas and sometimes the gemstones have white streaks or spots. One interesting feature of Kyanite is that is exhibits different hardness when cut along and across its axes.
|Kyanite||Blue||Kyanite is supposed to help the wearer with communication and expression.||Common||Transparent-Transluscent||4.0-4.5 along axes, 6.0-7.0 across axes||1.71-1.73||3.53-3.70||Vitreous, Pearly||Perfect
Labradorite is named after Labrador, Canada. It shows a unique property called adularescence - it almost appears that there is a white or blue light shining from inside the gemstone. Some Eskimo legends state that the Northern Lights shone down on these stones and their glory was captured within.
|Feldspar||Rainbow Moonstone, Andesine-Labradorite, Spectrolite||Dark grey, Colorless, Orange Red, Brown||This stone is believed to aid the wearer find their true calling, and is also said to help provide insight.||Moderate||Transparent-Opaque||6.0-6.5||1.56-1.57||2.65-2.75||Vitreous||Perfect
Lapis Lazuli has historically been used as a gemstone and remains well known today. It is an intense blue opaque gemstone and it shimmers and has white spots and streaks. Historically was ground into powder and used to create blue paint, before a synthetic method for creating the same colors was invented.
|Classified as a Rock||Blue with white streaks and spots||Lapis Lazuli has been valued as a gemstone since the time of ancient Egypt, and is considered a stone of companionship and truth. Lapis can be used to strengthen relationships and friendships.||Good quality Lapis is rare, lower quality is common||Opaque||5.0-6.0||1.5||2.5-3.0||Vitreous, Greasy, Dull||Indistinct
Larimar is the gem quality, rare variety of Pectolite, and the name is trademarked. Pectolite is quite common, but Larimar is found only in the Dominican Republic and is quite rare. Larimar has only become a commercially produced gemstone in recent years, but it has been highly valued in the Dominican Republic for a long time.
|Pectolite||Blue with lighter and darker areas||Larimar is known as the Atlantis Stone, and can help relieve stress and induce calm.||Rare||Transluscent-Opaque||4.5-5.0||1.59-1.65||2.7-2.9||Silky||Perfect
Malachite is a green gemstone, but is also used as a source of copper. Malachite has been used as a material for jewelry since time of ancient Greece.
|Malachite||Azurite-Malachite||Green||Historically, Malachite is said to have protective properties.||Common||Transluscent-Opaque||3.25-4.1||1.65-1.91||3.25-4.10||Vitreous, Matte||Perfect
Moonstone is quite a well-known gemstone, and exhibits adularescence, the effect where it seems as though there is light coming from within a gemstone. Moonstone can come in a variety of colors.
|Feldspar||Cat's Eye Moonstone, Rainbow Moonstone, Star Moonstone||Many colors||Moonstone has a lot of mythology and lore attached to it. It is said to bring about passion and arousal in couples.||Birth stone: June||Common||Transparent-Transluscent||6.0-6.5||1.518-1.526||2.56-2.59||Vitreous, Pearly||Perfect
Morganite is the pink variety of Beryl, and is actually named after the renowned banker JP Morgan (you may know him from the bank that he started).
|Beryl||Pink||Morganite is known as the stone of love. In men, it is said to aid in balancing masculine and feminine energy, and in women it is believed to help encourage self reliance.||Moderate||Transparent-Opaque||7.5-8.0||1.56-1.60||2.71-2.90||Vitreous||Indistinct
Obsidian is volcanic glass, and is named after a Roman general. It forms from cooled lava, and is not a true mineral. Obsidian comes in mainly darker colors like brown and grey; other colors are less common.
|Glass||Apache Tears, Mahogany Obsidian, Rainbow Obsidian, Sheen Obsidian, Snowflake Obsidian||Black, Grey, Brown, Lighter colors are rare||Obisdian is known as a Stone of Truth, and can bring forward hidden feelings and reveal secrets.||Common||Transparent-Opaque||5.0-5.5||1.45-1.55||2.35-2.6||Vitreous||None
Onyx is a solid black form Chalcedony Quartz, although the term is sometimes used to describe banded black and white agate also.
|Chalcedony Quartz||Black||Onyx is supposed to enhance strength, confidence, and discipline of the wearer.||Zodiac Stone: Leo||Common||Opaque||6.5-7.0||1.53-1.54||2.58-2.64||Waxy, Dull||None
Opal is the national gemstone of Australia, and more than 95% of the worlds Opal supply comes from there. The distinct characteristic of the various forms of Opal is the color play - Opals seem to flash with different colors when turned under light.
|Opal||Well known varieties include Black Opal, Boulder Opal, Chocolate Opal, Fire Opal, Moss Opal and Common Opal, but there are many more varieties||All colors||Opal purportedly helps combat depression and can inspire creative and out of the box thinking.||Birthstone: October||Common||Transparent-Opaque||5.5-6.5||1.37-1.52||1.98-2.5||Waxy, Resinous||None
Pearls are formed in certain kinds of molluscs, chiefly mussels and oysters. Natural pearls are very rare and most pearls on the market today are cultured.
|Non Mineral Organic||White, Pink, Yellow, Cream, Golden, Purple, Blue, Black||Pearls are a symbol of purity and integrity, and can heighten these characteristics.||Birthstone: June||Moderate||Opaque||2.5-4.5||1.52-1.69||2.6-2.8||Pearly||None
Peridot is the name of the gem quality variety of the mineral Olivine, and is a light green or olive coloured semi precious stone. The name comes from the Arabic word for gem, and has been used as a semi precious stone since early human history.
|Olivine||Light/Olive Green||Peridot can help with emotional balance, self esteem and security.||Birthstone: August||Moderate||Transparent||6.5-7.0||1.54-1.55||2.63-2.65||Vitreous||Indistinct
Prehnite is a green gem, and often has a milky or cloudy quality to it. It is named after its discovered, Hendrik von Prehn, a mineralogist.
|Prehnite||Green||Prehnite is said to be a stone of prophecy, and can help enhance the spiritual side of the wearer. It also help with improving intuitiveness.||Moderate||Transparent-Transluscent||6.0-6.5||1.61-1.67||2.82-2.94||Vitreous, Pearly||Good
Pyrite, in the past also known as 'Fool's Gold', is a metallic yellowish grey color. Historically it was relatively commonly used as a gemstone, but is less popular nowadays.
|Pyrite||Metallic, Yellow-Grey||A protective stone, Pyrite should help guard against others trying to bring harm to you.||Common||Opaque||6.0-6.5||1.73-1.83||4.8-4.9||Metallic||Indistinct
Quartz is one of the most common minerals on Earth, and many gemstones fall into the Quartz family.
|Quartz||Many||All colors||Each variety of Quartz can have different effects.||Common||Transparent-Opaque||7||1.54-1.55||2.63-2.65||Vitreous||Indistinct
Rhodochrosite is a red or pink color and has stripes or bands of lighter and darker shades across, making it an attractive gemstone, and the name comes from the Greek for 'Rose Colored'.
|Rhodochrosite||Red, Pink, with stripes||The stone is said to aid emotional development, including in areas of love, empathy, and inner strength.||High quality transparent crystal variety is very rare, other varieties common||Transparent-Opaque||3.5-4.0||1.6-1.82||3.0-3.3||Vitreous||Perfect
Rhodonite is a red or pink color with black patterns and features. The name comes from the Greek 'Rhodos', which translates to 'Rose Colored'.
|Rhodonite||Red, Pink, with black veins||Rhodonite is a pink gem and is thus associated with emotions. It is said to be helpful with relationships and friendships.||High quality transparent crystal variety is very rare, other varieties common||Transparent-Opaque||5.5-6.0||1.733-1.734||3.4-3.7||Vitreous, Greasy||Perfect
Rock crystal, also known as Clear Quartz, is the colorless Quartz variety. It is the most common variety of Quartz
|Macrocrystalline Quartz||Colorless||Rock Crystal, despite being common, is seen as the 'master healer', and is supposed to help the body and mind in many positive ways. It is said to help regulate and balance energy.||Very Common||Transparent-Transluscent||7||1.54-1.55||2.63-2.65||Vitreous||Indistinct
Rose Quartz is a very popular variety of Quartz, and is usually a light, soft pink. Rose Quartz is relatively inexpensive and is a popular choice for both jewelry hobbysts and industry professionals.
|Macrocrystalline Quartz||Star Rose Quartz||Pink||As with other pink semi precious stones, Rose Quartz is said to help with emotional developments, and is particularly supportive to any kind of love (romantic, familial, etc).||Common||Transparent-Transluscent||7||1.54-1.55||2.63-2.65||Vitreous||Indistinct
Sard is a darker brown Chalcedony Quartz, quite similar to Carnelian and the two are often hard to distinguish as there is no clear cut line.
|Chalcedony Quartz||Brown||Sard can help promote openness and extroversion.||Moderate||Transluscent-Opaque||6.5-7.0||1.53-1.55||2.63-2.64||Vitreous||None
Sardonyx is a variety of Agate that has brown with white or black bands.
|Chalcedony Quartz||Brown with bands||Sardonyx is a stone of strength and protection, and can encourage honorable behaviour, build character and boost will power.||Common||Transluscent-Opaque||6.5-.7.0||1.53-1.55||2.6-2.65||Waxy||None
Sodalite is a blue gemstone with white streaks and patterns. It was named Sodalite due to the high amount of sodium found in the material.
|Sodalite||Hackmanite||Blue with white streaks||Sodalite can strengthen logical ability and has a calming effect||Common||Transparent-Opaque||5.5-6.0||1.48||2.14-2.4||Vitreous, Greasy||Indistinct
Spinel comes in a wide range of colors but is most well known for its red variety which can often resemble Ruby.
|Spinel||Flame Spinel, Balas Spinel, Pleonast, Almandine Spinel, Blue Spinel, Gahnospinel, Picotite, Rubicelle, Ruby Spinel||Many colors||Spinel can be used to help soothe and calm the wearer, and is helpful for anxiety or stress relief.||Moderate||Transparent-Opaque||8||1.712-1.762||3.54-3.63||Vitreous||Indistinct
Sugilite is a rare mineral and the gemstone variety is even rarer. It is purple in color and is named after Japanese geologist Kenichi Sugi who discovered it. Sugilite often has patterns and veins, and pure, unpatterened sugilite is consdiered more valuable.
|Sugilite||Purple||Sugilite can bring positive energy to the wearer and help them increase focus and determination.||Gem quality is very rare, other quality is rare||Transluscent-Opaque||5.5-6.5||1.544-1.611||2.76-2.8||Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy||Indistinct
Sunstone is gem in the Feldspar family, and is known for its shimmering effect (known as aventurescence). It is usually orange or red in color, and is the official gemstone of Oregon.
|Feldspar||Star Sunstone||Orange, Red, Pink, Brown||It is said that Sunstone can bring good fortune, improve luck and increase prosperity. Historically it has also been thought to be linked to the sun, and can bring vitality and warmth to the wearer.||Moderate||Transparent-Transluscent||6.0-6.5||1.525-1.548||2.62-2.65||Vitreous||Perfect
Tanzanite is a gemstone that is blue or purple in color and its name is derived from Tanzania where it was first found.
|Zoisite||Yellow Tanzanite||Blue, Purple||Tanzanite is helpful for meditation and can also enhance feelings of calm as well as empathy.||Birthstone: December||Rare||Transparent-Transluscent||6.0-6.5||1.69-1.70||3.2-3.4||Vitreous||Perfect
Tiger's Eye is a golden brown gemstone from the Quartz family. It is known for its chatoyancy (Cat's Eye effect). It shares color with the Tiger, hence its name.
|Chalcedony Quartz||Golden Brown, Golden Yellow||Tiger's Eye is said to help develop physical endurance and power.||Moderate||Opaque||6.5-7.0||1.534-1.540||2.58-2.64||Silky||None
Topaz is a very popular gemstone that comes in many colors, but the yellow variety, known as Imperial Topaz, is the most valuable.
|Topaz||Azotic Topaz, Imperial Topaz, Mystic Topaz, Blue Topaz, Rutilated Topaz, Sherry Topaz, White Topaz||Many colors||Topaz is said to be helpful for self expression and thus should be useful to artists and writers.||Birthstone: November Zodiac Stone: Sagittarius||Common||Transparent-Transluscent||8||1.609-1.643||3.49-3.57||Vitreous||Perfect
Tourmaline is a popular gemstone thanks to the wide variety of colors it is found in. It is also occasionally multicolored. It gained much of its modern popularity when it was introduced to Tiffany & Co by George Kunz.
|Tourmaline||Achroite, Canary Tourmaline, Chrome Tourmaline, Dravite, Elbaite, Indicolite, Paraiba Tourmaline, Rubellite, Schorl, Watermelon Tourmaline||Many colors||Tourmaline is believed to attract positive energy, and can be helpful with detoxification.||Birthstone: October||Common||Transparent-Opaque||7.0-7.5||1.61-1.67||2.82-3.32||Vitreous||Indistinct
Tsavorite is the green variety of the Garnet, and despite its rarity is quite popular, and consequently valuable. It comes only from one source, Tsavo, in Tanzania, and its name is derived from this location.
|Garnet||Green||Tsavorite is thought to encourage strength, optimism, and positive energy.||Rare||Transparent-Opaque||6.5-7.5||1.734-1.759||3.57-3.73||Vitreous||Indistinct
Turquoise is a green-blue or sky-blue gems, and in French the name means 'Turkish Stone'; this is due to the fact that the stone was introduced to Europe from Turkey originally. Historically it has been valued by many civilisations, and maintains its popularity today due to its striking blue color.
|Turquoise||Eilat Stone||Blue, Green-Blue, sometimes with black veins||This stone can offer protection, and is thought to be helpful for career development.||Birthstone: December||Common||Transluscent-Opaque||5.0-6.0||1.61-1.65||2.31-2.84||Waxy, Matte||None
Variscite is a lesser known green gemstone that often has interesting patterns and veins. It is also known as Utahlite, as Utah is the main source of the gemstone.
|Variscite||Green||Variscite is less well known, but some believe that this and other green semi precious stones are helpful for development of intellegience and wealth.||Rare||Transluscent-Opaque||4.0-5.0||1.563-1.594||2.42-2.58||Vitreous, Waxy||Perfect
Zircon is not well known, but is exceedingly important in the gemstone trade due to its many similarities to Diamond. Zircon comes in a variety of colors, and has a sparkle shared with Diamond that many other gemstones may lack.
|Zircon||Jacinth, Jargon, Matura Diamond, Starlite||Many colors||Zircon is said to be helpful in encouraging wisdom and honor in wearers.||Birthstone: December||Some varieties are rare, but otherwise common||Transparent-Transluscent||6.5-7.5||1.81-2.024||3.93-4.73||Vitreous, Brilliant||Indistinct